Media Coverage in Pakistan and Afghanistan

Significance of International Media Coverage in Pakistan and Afghanistan

Pakistan and Afghanistan have remained the most volatile countries of the world since the Russian intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 and subsequent anti-Communism guerrilla armed struggle, the emergence of Taliban in 1996, gathering of Al-Qaida outfit and the war on terrorism after 9/11 in the region. The U.S. led NATO Operation in Afghanistan was the second major live media coverage war after the first Gulf War in January 1991. On the other hand, the militants also excessively used their media machines and communication system in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Operation against them remained severely interrupted owing to the effectiveness of their message and impacts on the local people. Burno (2009) stated that with overwhelming firepower, Western armies rarely lose in combat to Taliban fighters in Afghanistan. But in the communications battle, the militants appear to hold the edge.…Using FM transmitters, the Internet, and threatening notes, Taliban operating from the border region of Pakistan and Afghanistan have proven effective at either cowing citizens or winning them over to their message of jihad85. This makes evident that all contending world powers and parties give substantial importance to the use of media in the region in the struggle of safeguarding their vested interests. Moreover, the region has remained a conflict zone for the last more than three decades and conflict naturally invites the attention of media. This factor also enhances the significance of global media coverage of the territory comprising Pakistan and Afghanistan.

 

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Taylor, M. Philip, (2002) “Global Communications, International Affairs and the Media Since 1945”, London, Routledge, (p.1) web address: http://www.amazon.com/Global-Communications-International-Affairs-History/dp/0415116783 #reader_0415116783,  (Accessed March 01, 2014).

  1. Ibid. (pp.1, 2), (Accessed March 01, 2014).
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  3. Ibid, (pp.11, 12) (Accessed March 02, 2014).
  4. Ibid, (pp.12- 30) (Accessed March 02, 2014).
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  1. Ibid, (Accessed March 02, 2014).

 

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http://scholar.google.com.pk/scholar?q=CHINA%E2%80%99S+CHANGING+ROLE+IN+ASIA++wang++Jisi&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=COA2U42XJMuWiQepoIHYDQ&ved=0CCYQgQMwAA, (Accessed March 03, 2014).

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http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/1499/rise_of_chinas_soft_power.html, (Accessed March 04, 2014).

  1. Ibid, (Accessed March 04, 2014).
  2. Ibid, (Accessed March 04, 2014).
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  1. Confucius Institute Online, (2014) Web address: http://www.chinesecio.com/index.php, (Accessed March 05, 2014).
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  3. Ibid, (Accessed March 06, 2014).
  4. Bhadrakumar, M.K, (2009), Asia Times – December 24, 2009 See.            http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/KL24Ag04.html, (Accessed March 07, 2014).
  5. Ibid, (Accessed March 06, 2014).
  6. Ibid, (Accessed March 06, 2014).
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  10. Ibid, (Accessed March 08, 2014).
  11. Sheikh, Salman. Rafi, op. cit. (Accessed March 08, 2014).
  12. Joseph E. Fallon, op. cit. (Accessed March 09, 2014).
  13. Ibid, (Accessed March 09, 2014).
  14. Sheikh, Salman. Rafi, op. cit. (Accessed March 10, 2014).
  15. Joseph E. Fallon, op. cit. (Accessed March 10, 2014).
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  17. Ibid, (Accessed March 11, 2014).
  18. Ibid, (Accessed March 11, 2014).
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  21. Ibid, (Accessed March 13, 2014).
  22. Ibid, (Accessed March 14, 2014).
  23. Ibid, (Accessed March 14, 2014).
  24. Ghouri et, al. op. cit. (Accessed March 15, 2014).
  25. Ibid, (Accessed March 15, 2014).
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http://www.i-m-s.dk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ims-growth-china-2008.pdf, Ibid, (Accessed March 15, 2014).

  1. Ibid. (Accessed March 15, 2014).
  2. Ibid. (Accessed March 15, 2014).
  3. Zhao Yuezhi, (2008) “How Does Commercialization and Globalization of Media in China affect China’s political structure?” Paper Presented at the Conference (The Growth of Media In China) Organized by International Media Support, the Danish National Commission for UNESCO and Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen Denmark November 28. Available from: http://www.i-m-s.dk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ims-growth-china-2008.pdf, Ibid, (Accessed March 16, 2014).
  4. Ibid. (Accessed March 16, 2014).
  5. Ibid. (Accessed March 16, 2014).
  6. Burgh, Hugo de, (2008) “The Chinese media: Western Perceptions, Chinese Reality”, Paper Presented at the Conference (The Growth of Media In China) Organized by International Media Support, the Danish National Commission for UNESCO and Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen Denmark November 28. Available from: http://www.i-m-s.dk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ims-growth-china-2008.pdf, Ibid, (Accessed March 17, 2014).
  7. Ibid. (Accessed March 17, 2014).
  8. Zhengrong, “Hu, (2008) “How do authorities understand the role of the media? How is State Control of Media Exercised Today?” Paper Presented at the Conference (The Growth of Media In China) Organized by International Media Support, the Danish National Commission for UNESCO and Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen Denmark November 28. Available from: http://www.i-m-s.dk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ims-growth-china-2008.pdf, Ibid, (Accessed March 18, 2014).
  9. Ibid. (Accessed March 18, 2014).
  10. Ibid. (Accessed March 18, 2014).
  11. Jingrong, Tong, (2008) “Investigative journalism and the authority in China”, Paper Presented at the Conference (The Growth of Media In China) Organized by International Media Support, the Danish National Commission for UNESCO and Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen Denmark November 28. Available from: http://www.i-m-s.dk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ims-growth-china-2008.pdf, Ibid, (Accessed March 19, 2014).
  12. Ibid. (Accessed March 19, 2014).
  13. Xiaoling, Zang, (2009) “Chinese State Media Going Global” East Asian Policy, Chinese State Media Going Global, Zang Xiaoling, School of Contemporary Chinese Studies, The University of Nottingham. Web address:  www.eai.nus.edu.sg/Vol2No1_ZhangXiaoling.pdf‎, (Accessed March 20, 2014).
  14. Ibid. (Accessed March 20, 2014).
  15. Ibid. (Accessed March 20, 2014).
  16. Ibid. (Accessed March 20, 2014).
  17. Ibid. (Accessed March 20, 2014).
  18. Nelson, Anne (2013), “CCTV’s International Expansion: China’s Grand Strategy for Media?” A Report Presented to The Center for International Media Assistance National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, DC. Web address: http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/808885/cima-cctvs-international-expansion.pdf, (Accessed March 21, 2014).
  19. Ibid, (Accessed March 21, 2014).
  20. Ibid, (Accessed March 21, 2014).
  21. Ibid, (Accessed March 21, 2014).
  22. Ibid, (Accessed March 22, 2014).
  23. Ibid, (Accessed March 22, 2014).
  24. Ibid, (Accessed March 22, 2014).
  25. Ibid, (Accessed March 22, 2014).
  26. Ibid, (Accessed March 22, 2014).
  27. Wang, Xian, (2006), “Media in Political Decision Making: An Examination of the SARS Crisis in China” (MA Dissertation), University of Leeds, Institute of Communications Studies, U.K.

Web address: ics.leeds.ac.uk/files/2012/05/Xian_Wang.doc‎, (Accessed March 23, 2014).

  1. Ibid, (Accessed March 23, 2014).
  2. Ibid, (Accessed March 23, 2014).
  3. Ibid, (Accessed March 23, 2014).
  4. Ibid, (Accessed March 23, 2014).
  5. Xu, Beina (2014), “Media Censorship in China”, USA, Council on Foreign Relations web address: http://www.crf.org/experts/world/beina-xu/b18662, (Accessed March 24, 2014).
  6. Ibid, (Accessed March 24, 2014).
  7. Ibid, (Accessed March 24, 2014).
  8. Ibid, (Accessed March 25, 2014).
  9. Ibid, (Accessed March 25, 2014).
  10. Ibid, (Accessed March 25, 2014).
  11. Qing Luo et al, (2010) “China Radio International in the Digital Age: Propagating China on the Global Scenario”, Global Media Journal Volume 9, Issue 16,    Available from: http://lass.purduecal.edu/cca/gmj/PDF_archive/amer_edition/spring2010/GMJ-SP10-article3-chen.pdf, (Accessed March 26, 2014).

 

  1. Ibid, (Accessed March 26, 2014).
  2. Ibid, (Accessed March 26, 2014).
  3. Ibid, (Accessed March 27, 2014).
  4. Ibid, (Accessed March 27, 2014).
  5. Ibid, (Accessed March 27, 2014).
  6. Ibid, (Accessed March 27, 2014).

85.       Bruno ( 2009), Winning  the  Information  War  in  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan  ,  Council   on  Foreign   Relations , USA. Available from:  http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/winning-information-war-afghanistan-pakistan/p19330?co=C033404

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